What is Gelatin made from?
Gelatin is a protein that is a hydrocolloid. There are two types of gelatin. Gelatin derived from an acid-treated precursor is known as Type A. Gelatin derived from an alkali-treated precursor is known as Type B. Gelatin is obtained by the partial hydrolysis of collagen derived from the skin, white connective tissue and bones of animals. Gelatin does not occur free in nature, and cannot be recovered from horns, hooves and other non-collagen containing parts of vertebrate animals. There are no plant sources of gelatin, and there is no chemical relationship between gelatin and other materials referred to as vegetable gelatin, such as seaweed extracts.
How is it made?
An explanation of the production of gelatin will help in understanding the properties and the characteristics among the different types and grades. Gelatin is derived from collagen, an insoluble fibrous protein that occurs in vertebrates and is the principal constituent of connective tissues and bones. Collagen is distinctive in that it contains an unusual high level of the cyclic amino acids proline and hydroxyproline. Collagen consists of three helical polypeptide chains wound around each other and connected by intermolecular cross-links. Gelatin is recovered from collagen by hydrolysis. There are several varieties of gelatin, the composition of which depends on the source of collagen and the hydrolytic treatment used. Some typical gelatin production processes are shown in this PDF File.
What is "Bloom"?
The measurement of force in grams required to depress a standard plunger on a texture analyzer 4mm into the surface of a 6.67% gelatin sample at 10ºC (50ºF). The harder the gelatin the higher the bloom strength.
Gelatin consists of
Approximately 86% protein, 12% moisture & 2% ash "mineral salt".
The difference between Gelatin & Hydrolyzed Gelatin?
Hydrolyzed Gelatin does not gel.
Temperature at which gelatin initially melts into solution.
Percentage of water driven off from gelatin after cooking the gelatin in a 105ºC oven.
Residue on Ignition
Percentage of residue after cooking the gelatin to an ash test at 550ºC.
Temperature at which gelatin initially forms a gel.
What is Viscosity?
A measure of a 6.67% gelatin solutions resistance to flow at 60ºC (140ºF). Flow time of 100 ml of a 6.67% gelatin solution at 60ºC (140ºF) through a standard pipette. The time required to flow through a standard viscosity pipette is mathematically converted into a viscosity measurement expressed in millipoises.
What is Bulk Density?
Bulk density is the exact volume of space the gelatin takes up. Bulk density is determined by pouring the gelatin into a graduated cylinder. Once filled and leveled with a spatula the loose density calculation is recorded. Then the cylinder is taped 15 times on the bench top and the packed density is recorded. The test is repeated three times and the average value is recorded. Our test results are expressed in grams per Cubic Centimeter (g/cc). You may convert our expression to any unit of measurement that fits your need. To view our Bulk Density ranges click here.
is all gelatin the same?
No. Gelatin is tested and “Graded” according to strength. The Grade is based on the “Bloom” test and the higher the Bloom number the higher the grade. Gelatin is usually priced according to the Grade; the higher the grade, the higher the price.